Only the author has the right to use the work that s/he has created or to authorise its use. This use may be in the form of a reproduction (in the broad sense, which includes reproduction sensu stricto, adaptation, loan, hire, translation…), communication to the public or even distribution of the original or copies of the work.
Rights relating to the use are qualified as property rights.
The author also has a moral right. This includes the right to disclose the work, the right to claim or to refuse authorship of the work as well as the right to respect for the work, allowing the author to oppose any modification thereof.
Only the property rights may be transferred. The concept of transfer covers both the disposal and the license.
The original owner of copyright is the individual person who created the work. It is of no importance whether the work has been created at the initiative of a commission or in the framework of a working relationship.